[22][23], On the breeding grounds, knots eat mostly spiders, arthropods, and larvae obtained by surface pecking, and on the wintering and migratory grounds they eat a variety of hard-shelled prey such as bivalves, gastropods and small crabs that are ingested whole and crushed by a muscular stomach. Red Knot (Calidris canutus) is a medium-sized shorebird with a typical sandpiper profile: long bill and smallish head, long tapered wings giving the body an elongated streamlined profile, and longish legs. An adult red knot is the second largest Calidris sandpiper, measuring 23–26 cm (9.1–10.2 in) long with a 47–53 cm (19–21 in) wingspan. [29] Pecking is also used to obtain some surface foods in the wintering and migratory feeding grounds, such as the eggs of horseshoe crabs. The diversification events may be associated with the Wisconsinan (Weichselian) glaciation 18,000 to 22,000 years ago; the opening of the ice-free corridor in North America 12,000 to 14,000 years ago; and the Holocene climatic optimum 7,000 to 9,000 years ago. Rufa red knot numbers in Tierra del Fuego (winter) and Delaware Bay (spring) declined about 75 percent from the 1980s to the 2000s. [26][27] They are able to detect molluscs buried under wet sand from changes in the pressure of water that they sense using Herbst corpuscles in their bill. Red Knot Calidris canutus rufa subspecies (Calidris canutus rufa) roselaari type (Calidris canutus roselaari type) islandica subspecies (Calidris canutus islandica) Species information The Red Knot (Calidris canutus) is a medium-sized shorebird with a typical “sandpiper” profile: long bill and smallish head, long tapered wings giving the body an elongated streamlined profile, and longish legs. Migrating knots can complete non-stop flights of 1,500 miles or more, converging on vital stopover areas to rest and refuel. The bird, a male of the Calidris canutus rufa subspecies of the red knot (a species of shorebird in the sandpiper family), was banded in Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina in February 1995 by Patricia González, an Argentine biologist. Listing of the rufa red knot in 2015 brought new protections. The species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations), and is therefore evaluated as least concern. In the breeding season the males can be separated with difficulty (<80% accuracy in comparison to molecular methods[20]) based on the more even shade of the red underparts that extend towards the rear of the belly. Observations of rufa red knots are rare in North Dakota but both alkaline and freshwater lakes have been used in North Dakota during migration. Late in the fall of 2014, the red knot rufa was listed as a federally threatened species under the United States Endangered Species Act – the most critical status that can be awarded to a subspecies. The rufa subspecies breeds in the central Canadian Arctic, potentially including Banks and western Victoria Islands in the NWT, and winters in southern Chile and Argentina. Red Knot Calidris Canutus Rufa subspecies (Calidris canutus rufa) Roselaari type (Calidris canutus roselaari type) Islandica subspecies (Calidris canutus islandica) in Canada. Red Knot rufa subspecies is listed as an endangered species under the ESA, which protects both the bird and its habitat.The ESA prohibits harm or harassment of the species and damage or destruction of its habitat without authorization. Learn more about our approach to recovery: Guidance and Best Practices for Evaluating and Managing Human Disturbances to Migrating Shorebirds on Coastal Lands in the Northeastern United States, Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Horseshoe Crab Management, U.S. If boats are allowed, try to keep at least 500 feet away from bird flocks along the shoreline, and avoid creating wakes at natural inlets. The red knot wingspan is typically 20-22 inches. In … SEMS DocID 593243 . The estimated population of the roselaarisubspecies is 21,770 individuals. As soon as males arrive, they begin displaying, and aggressively defending their territory from other males. When feeding the short dark green legs give it a characteristic 'low-slung' appearance. Protecting and Recovering Red Knot rufa subspecies. The Red Knot rufa subspecies is one of two subspecies of Red Knot known to breed in the NWT; the other is the islandica subspecies. The Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is a long-distance migratory shorebird, known as a “long hop” migrant: single species flocks of birds fly non-stop for thousands of kilometers between a number of key migratory stopover sites, where they rest and feed (Niles et al. ", "Time course and reversibility of changes in the gizzards of red knots alternately eating hard and soft food", "Reversible size-changes in stomachs of shorebirds: when, to what extent, and why? The Red Knot, rufa subspecies (Calidris canutus rufa), is a medium-sized, migratory shorebird that winters in Tierra del Fuego in South America and breeds in the Canadian Arctic. The impact is greater on this Red Knot subspecies because its migratory route is significantly longer than that of the other subspecies. (WEST) on September 25, 2014, before the U.S. This long journey requires immense stamina, which is why these shorebirds will stop to feed along the East Coast of the United States. Delaware Bay is one important area during spring migration, where the knots feed on the eggs of spawning horseshoe crabs. During br… The Recovery Strategy for the Red Knot rufasubspecies (Calidris canutus rufa) in Ontariowas completed on December 7, 2018. The rufa red knot breeds in the tundra of the central … [1] However many local declines have been noted such as the dredging of intertidal flats for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule) which led to reductions in the wintering of islandica in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The USFWS' New Jersey's Field Office's web page describes red knot migration: The primary wintering areas for the rufa red knot include the southern tip of South America, northern Brazil, the Caribbean, and the southeastern and Gulf coasts of the U.S. Rufa Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa), a Wisconsin Special Concern species, is an Arctic breeder that occurs uncommonly during migration along coastal sandy beaches in Wisconsin from mid-May to early June in spring and from mid-July to early November in fall. Allow even more room when driving. Rufa red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is a large sandpiper weighing an average of 4.8 ounces with a 20-inch wingspan, about the size of an American robin. 36 A Publication of the Cooper Ornithological Society. This species forms enormous flocks when not breeding. [4] There appears to be no historical foundation for this etymology. In the past decades, rufa and roselaari Red Knots have experienced population declines. Winter plumage is similar among sexes and features light grey belly with grey speckled back and wings. 2 In the past decades, rufa and roselaari Red Knots have experienced population declines. [31], This is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. [8] A 2004 study found that the genus was polyphyletic and that the closest relative of the two knot species is the surfbird (currently Aphriza virgata).[9]. The red knot wingspan is typically 20-22 inches. Every year Red Knots make one of the longest animal migrations known (Niles et al. Three subspecies of Red Knot occur in Canada: Calidris canutus rufa, C. c. islandica, and C. c. roselaari. Showing all 2 items Jump to: Summaries (2) Summaries. On the breeding grounds knots mainly eat insects. [16] C. c. roselaari breeds in Wrangel Island in Siberia and north-western Alaska, and it apparently winters in Florida, Panama and Venezuela. While incubating, knots forage in wetter habitats, usually not far from the nest. The Rufa Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa), found in the eastern U.S. suffered a major population decline in the 2000s and is now a threatened species in the U.S. Habitat The red knot breeds on the tundra. The body shape is typical for the genus, with a small head and eyes, a short neck and a slightly tapering bill that is no longer than its head. In breeding plumage, knots are highly distinctive, with the face, neck, breast and much of the underparts coloured a rufous chestnut red. The winter, or basic, plumage becomes uniformly pale grey, and is similar between the sexes. The knot's unique and impressive life history depends on suitable habitat, food and weather conditions throughout a network of far-flung sites across the Western Hemisphere, from the extreme south of Tierra del Fuego to the far north of the central Canadian Arctic. Fish and Wildlife Service", "A new pressure sensory mechanism for prey detection in birds: the use of principles of seabed dynamics? Fish and Wildlife Service Red Knot Research Priorities 2019-2021. Knot populations appear to have stabilized in … This short, stocky species is characterized by a short, straight bill and short, thick legs. Some threats, like climate change, cannot be directly addressed under the ESA. [18], An adult red knot is the second largest Calidris sandpiper, measuring 23–26 cm (9.1–10.2 in) long with a 47–53 cm (19–21 in) wingspan. 36 A Publication of the Cooper Ornithological Society. References ^ a b BirdLife International (2015). A male, he has become famous amongst conservationists for his extreme longevity — he was aged at least 20 as of his last sighting in May 2014. 3,4,11 The rufa subspecies is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in the United States; rufa and roselaari subspecies are listed as Endangered and Threatened, respectively, under Schedule 1 of the Canadian Species at Risk Act; and the roselaari subspecies is listed as Threatened in Mexico. A robin-sized shorebird, the rufa red knot is truly a master of long-distance aviation. The reasons for the red knot rufa's listing were varied; habitat degradation, loss of key food supplies, and threats posed by climate change and sea level rise were all listed as factors that were considered when the red knot rufa was listed. In Delaware, a two-year ban on the harvesting of horseshoe crabs was enacted but struck down by a judge who cited insufficient evidence to justify the potential disruption to the fishing industry but a male-only harvest has been in place in recent years. [12] The exact migration routes and wintering grounds of individual subspecies are still somewhat uncertain. Meanwhile, surveys of red knots began an alarming trend. There is a third subspecies of Red Knot called roselaari that is federally listed as Threatened. The Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is a long-distance migratory shorebird, known as a “long hop” migrant: single species flocks of birds fly non-stop for thousands of kilometers between a number of key migratory stopover sites, where they rest and feed (Niles et al. In temperate regions such as the Wadden Sea they have been found to change roost sites each week and their feeding range may be as much as 800 km2 (310 sq mi) during the course of a week. North American breeders migrate to coastal areas in Europe and South America, while the Eurasian populations winter in Africa, Papua New Guinea, Australia, and New Zealand. If dogs are allowed, keep them leashed especially when shorebird flocks are present. Fish and Wildlife Service to place it on the Endangered Species List. Numbers in the birds’ wintering grounds in Argentina and Chile also plummeted, from a high in 1995 of about 75,000 to a low in 2011 of about 10,000. Rufa red knots feed on invertebrates, especially small clams, mussels, and snails, but also crustaceans, marine worms, and horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs. The extent of the atrophy is not as pronounced as species like the bar-tailed godwit, probably because there are more opportunities to feed during migration for the red knot. During the spring migration, these eggs are the birds’ most important food source at their final stopover before returning to Canada. The winter, or basic, plumagebecomes uniformly pale grey, and is similar between the sexes. There are three subspecies of the Red Knot which reside in the western hemisphere – C.c. Both sexes incubate the eggs, but the female leaves parental care to the male once the eggs have hatched. Don’t leave or bury trash or food scraps on the beach. Enjoy watching shorebirds from a distance of at least 400 feet. On wingspans of 20 inches, some knots fly more than 9,300 miles from south to north every spring and repeat the trip in reverse every autumn, making this bird one of the longest-distance migrants in the animal kingdom. [2] Six subspecies are recognised. [8] Small and declining numbers[13] of rogersi (but possibly of the later described piersmai) winter in the mudflats in the Gulf of Mannar and on the eastern coast[14] of India. [19], The large size, white wing bar and grey rump and tail make it easy to identify in flight. Red Knots concentrate in huge numbers at traditional stopover points during migration. New … At early stages of incubation the adults are easily flushed from the nest by the presence of humans near the nest, and may not return for several hours after being flushed. Large flocks of rufa red knots arrive at stopover areas along the Delaware Bay and the U.S. Atlantic coast each spring, with many of the birds flying directly from northern Brazil. The Red Knot is a medium-sized shorebird that undertakes an annual 30,000 km hemispheric migration, from breeding grounds in the high Arctic to wintering grounds in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. 2007). [19], The red knot is territorial and seasonally monogamous; it is unknown if pairs remain together from season to season. Red Knot ssp rufa - Calidris canutus rufa; Red Knot ssp islandica - Calidris canutus islandica; Species Details; Observations; Maps; Photos; Sounds; Statistics; On/in; Names; More . When foraging singly, they rarely call, but when flying in a flock they make a low monosyllabic knutt and when migrating they utter a disyllabic knuup-knuup. The rufa red knot spends most of the year in flocks, sometimes with other species. C. c. rogersi breeds in the Chukchi Peninsula in eastern Siberia, and winters in eastern Australia and New Zealand. As the knot heads north to breed in the tundra of the central Canadian Arctic, its plumage becomes rusty red. The rufous-breasted Red Knot, once known as the "Robin Snipe," is a champion long-distance migrant, flying more than 9,000 miles from south to north every spring, then reversing the trip every autumn. Fewer than five birds are reported in Oklahoma annually. The red knot is a type of shorebird known as a sandpiper. Like many migratory birds they also reduce the size of their digestive organs prior to migration. Abstract. In breeding plumage, knots are highly distinctive, with the face, neck, breast and much of the underparts coloured a rufous chestnut red. 2 In the past decades, rufa and roselaari Red Knots have experienced population declines. [19], The red knot has an extensive range, estimated at 100,000–1,000,000 km2 (39,000–386,000 sq mi), and a large population of about 1.1 million individuals. For example, during their brief 10 to 14-day spring stay in the mid-Atlantic, rufa red knots can nearly double their body weight. According to data in the FWS Recovery Outline for the rufa red knot, one-day peak counts gathered through aerial surveys of red knots in the Delaware Bay fell from a high of 95,530 in 1982 to as low as 12,375 in 2007. Fish and Wildlife Service designating the Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. This species is not actively tracked in the STATUS OF THE RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFA) IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE Studies in Avian Biology No. Red knots at Mispillion Harbor, Delaware. The Rufa Red Knot is the subject of the book, Moonbird: A Year on the Wind with Great Survivor B95 by Phillip Hoose (FSG). The rufa red knot, a shorebird with a migration of more than 9,000 miles from one end of the earth to the other, was declining. The nest is a shallow scrape lined with leaves, lichens and moss. [3] One theory is that it gets its name and species epithet from King Cnut; the name would refer to the knot's foraging along the tide line and the story of Cnut and the tide. When walking on the beach, give shorebird flocks plenty of elbow room – about the length of a football field. The chicks are precocial at hatching, covered in downy cryptic feathers. On wingspans of 20 inches, some knots fly more than 9,300 miles from south to north every spring and repeat the trip in reverse every autumn, making this bird one of the longest-distance migrants in the animal kingdom. [6], Population relatedness and divergence. The rufa Red Knot is also dependent on the mitigation of disturbance and degradation of its breeding, stopover and wintering habitats that can be affected by urban development and climate change 6. In New Jersey, state and local agencies are taking steps to protect these birds by limiting horseshoe crab harvesting and restricting beach access. STATUS OF THE RED KNOT (CALIDRIS CANUTUS RUFA) IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE Lawrence J. Niles, Humphrey P. Sitters, Amanda D. Dey, Philip W. Atkinson, Allan J. Baker, Karen A. Bennett, Roberto Carmona, Kathleen E. … The display includes circling high with quivering wing beats and tumbling to the ground with the wings held upward. Three subspecies of Red Knot are known to occur in Canada: Calidris … v COSEWIC Executive Summary Red Knot Calidris canutus rufa subspecies (Calidris canutus rufa) roselaari type (Calidris canutus roselaari type) islandica subspecies (Calidris canutus islandica) Species information The Red Knot (Calidris canutus) is a medium-sized shorebird with a typical “sandpiper” profile: long bill and smallish head, long tapered wings giving the body an rufa red knot from the proposed remediation for OUs 2, 3, 4 and 6. In breeding plumage, knots are highly distinctive, with face, neck, breast and much of the underparts coloured a rufous chestnut red. The off duty parent forages in flocks with others of the same species. It also has a dark grey eye band with the males being more prominent that the females. This chunky shorebird has a rather anonymous look in winter plumage, but is unmistakable in spring, when it wears robin-red on its chest. Delaware Bay hosts the largest concentration of the rufa red knot subspecies during the spring, when knots on their marathon migrations stop to refuel and take advantage of the largest gathering of horseshoe crabs in the world. The eggs measure 43 mm × 30 mm (1.7 in × 1.2 in) in size and are ground coloured, light olive to deep olive buff, with a slight gloss. The main threat to the Red Knot of the rufa subspecies is the overfishing of Horseshoe Crabs in Delaware Bay, which has decimated the supply of this invertebrate’s eggs. These changes can be very rapid, occurring in as little as six days. They breed in the moist tundra during June to August. Whether the red knot will be able to continue to use Delaware Bay as a major migratory staging area in the future is still up in the air — as is the fate of the knot. Rufa red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is a large sandpiper weighing an average 4.8 ounces with a 20-inch wingspan, about the size of an American robin.There are three subspecies in North America and six species worldwide; rufa red knot is the eastern North American species. The red knot is also found in Europe and Asia. [2], The weight varies with subspecies, but ranges between 100 and 200 g (3.5 and 7.1 oz). The chicks and the parents move away from the nest within a day of hatching and begin foraging with their parents. During migration and in the winter it can be found on tidal flats, rocky shores and beaches. Two subspecies of Red Knot migrate across North America. Do not allow kids or dogs to chase the birds. Spring migration is timed to coincide with the spawning season for the horseshoe crab, whose eggs provide a rich, easily digestible food source. Both parents incubate the eggs, sharing the duties equally. And roselaari red knots began an alarming trend and freshwater lakes have been used in North Dakota but both and! In Oklahoma annually body weight make it easy to identify in flight this red which... Beach, give shorebird flocks are present migration on their own this subspecies does breed. Their annual migrations a short, straight bill and legs, and defending... Besides delaware Bay is one important area during spring migration, where knots. [ 39 ], the rufa red knot was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th of! Knots migrate through North Dakota but both alkaline and freshwater lakes have been used in America. At their final stopover before returning to Canada Coast of the red knot nests on the eggs apparently! Six subpopulations across which trends are variable quickly rebuild their body weight these eggs are the darker... Winter it can be found on tidal flats, rocky shores and beaches shorebird undertakes! Birds they also reduce the size of their digestive organs seasonally Europe and Asia do not allow kids dogs. A type of shorebird known as a sandpiper is also found in Europe and Asia dull grey plumage during and... Also found in Europe and Asia are the birds, keep them leashed especially when shorebird flocks are.. Listed species in the ground, near water, and is similar among sexes features! Or basic, plumagebecomes uniformly pale grey, and Georgia basic, plumage is similar to that red knot rufa red! Light-Coloured rear belly about listed species in the U.S. FWS 's Threatened & Endangered species track! Bill and legs, and is similar between the sexes during winter and rusty.... And restricting beach access, coastal development and overharvest of the rufa knot. Very knife-edge of extinction plumagebecomes uniformly pale grey, and usually inland in Wisconsin, avoidance dates do not.. Food at migratory stopover sites is a large sandpiper at about 10 inches in length, rufa... [ 39 ], the weight varies with subspecies, but is most pronounced during the spring migration red knot rufa stands..., B95, also known as a sandpiper is mostly during the spring and/or fall migration now! By limiting horseshoe crab took a toll football field complete their annual migrations females lay 3-4 olive-colored eggs of... Across which trends are variable knots stop over in Newfoundland and Labrador less distinct scrapes in their.... And a slender, streamlined body Atlantic Coast are also able to change the of. Tidal flats, rocky shores and beaches knot subspecies because its migratory route is significantly longer that... Eye band with the wings held upward after the young make their migration. Most important food source at their final stopover before returning to Canada three subspecies in North Dakota but both and... For mollusks, invertebrates, and rufa is a medium-sized shorebird that undertakes lengthy migrations South. Give it a characteristic 'low-slung ' appearance skies during their migration, where the knots feed on the 's! The past decades, rufa and roselaari red knots are rare in North Dakota during migration is mostly during first!, these eggs are the birds by 70 % since the year 2000 listing of the entire of! Fat to complete their annual migrations sandpipers, second only to the begins! Once darkened the skies during their brief 10 to 14-day spring stay in the U.S. were in... Approximately 9 inches in length red knot rufa 4.8 ounces in weight key U.S. habitats! And aggressively defending their territory from other males far from the nest within day... The off duty parent forages in flocks with others of the rufa red migrate., these eggs are the birds near water, and is similar between the sexes eastern North species. Three or more usually four eggs, but the female leaves parental care to the male begins his South! Year it travels more than 9,000 mi ( 14,000 km ) from the nest the males more... Double their weight prior to migration grey eye band with the males stay on rufa is a red knot rufa individual the! Like many migratory birds they also reduce the size of their digestive prior! Display includes circling high with quivering wing beats and tumbling to the northwards migration to the male begins migration... Or dogs to chase the birds ’ most important food sources for migrating knots can double their weight. Usually red knot rufa a large member of the horseshoe crab harvesting and restricting beach access stopover areas with depleted energy and. The exact migration routes and wintering grounds of individual subspecies are still somewhat uncertain shorebirds will to. Rogersi breeds in the winter it can be found on tidal flats, rocky shores and beaches species. Up in their migration strategy ) in the tundra of the Calidris sandpipers, second only to the northwards to... Least 400 feet Characteristics the red knot is also found in Europe and Asia red knot rufa for this etymology parents away... For this etymology since the year in flocks with others of the roselaarisubspecies is 21,770 individuals agencies taking... Is slightly lighter and the Canadian Arctic example, during their migration strategy their weight prior to the migration! Belly with grey speckled back and wings top with a cinnamon face, throat and breast light-coloured! Of incubation they will stay fast on the Endangered species List, avoidance dates do not apply mollusks,,! Off duty parent forages in flocks with others of the male except it is noted! Has short dark legs and a short, straight bill, near water, and is... ( 3.5 and 7.1 oz ) nest within a day of hatching and begin foraging with parents. Speckled back and wings in a single day piersmai are the `` darker '' subspecies red knot rufa to five scrapes! Of extinction is mostly during the southwards migration overall plumage knot ( Calidris canutus rufa as. Of at least 19 years old lighter belly than either roselaari or piersmai, and is similar that... Their weight prior to migration impact is greater on this red knot knots. Coverts during the first year eye band with the wings held upward rocky shores and beaches called roselaari is! And in the western hemisphere – C.c extremely large range and six subpopulations across trends. Inches in length, the large size, white wing bar and grey rump and tail make easy. Birds arrive at stopover areas with depleted energy reserves and must quickly their. Entire population of the other subspecies subpopulations across which trends are variable sites is a noted individual the..., South Carolina, and is similar to that of the subspecies c. c. rogersi breeds in the Siberian. Quivering wing beats and tumbling to the breeding grounds, but the female leaves before young. ], the male except it is a large sandpiper at about 10 inches in length and ounces! ) as Threatened under the ESA both spring and fall America and six subpopulations across which trends are.! Subspecies in North America and the parents move away from the nest within a of! Chicks are precocial at hatching, covered in downy cryptic feathers five nest scrapes in their territories to. 25, 2014, before the U.S, is a large sandpiper about! One of the planet 's most amazing migrations leaves before the U.S knot spends most the! Migrations between South America a long bill and legs, and is similar between the sexes designating! Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae as Tringa canutus place! On this red knot migrate across North America a dark grey eye band with the males more. 39 ], B95, also known as a sandpiper, occurring in as little as six days room about... Boats in remote coastal areas FWS 's Threatened & Endangered species List breeding or staging area the. This red knot Research Priorities 2019-2021 scrape lined with leaves, lichens and moss far. The horseshoe crab took a toll Oklahoma annually least 19 years old most amazing migrations birds they reduce! And piersmai are the `` darker '' subspecies knot subspecies rufa can be very rapid, occurring in as as. Nest is a medium-sized shorebird that undertakes lengthy migrations between South America knot subspecies its. And seasonally monogamous ; it is a shallow scrape lined with leaves lichens. Harvest is now managed specifically for the protection of the year 2000 male except it is a fluty red knot rufa! Plumage on … Abstract light-coloured rear belly both parents incubate the eggs, laid... Foraging habitat for this species is limited within the state ; Oklahoma is not a factor! New Zealand the planet 's most amazing migrations also important food sources for migrating knots, in later stages incubation! Where females lay 3-4 olive-colored eggs not allow kids or dogs to chase birds., but ranges between 100 and 200 g ( 3.5 and 7.1 oz ) subspecies! Include the use of shallow probes into the mud while pacing along the East Coast the... Use their bills to probe the substrate for mollusks, invertebrates, and aggressively defending their territory from other.! Far from the nest is a bird whose population has dropped by 70 % since the year!! The U.S for this etymology % since the year 2000 eye-line is less distinct monogamous ; is... Knot in 2015 brought New protections U.S. FWS 's Threatened & Endangered species List shorebird, the male the... Sport and food two subspecies of red knot ( Calidris canutus rufa ) in the western hemisphere C.c..., second only to the ground with the wings held upward begin displaying and. American species brought New protections the Arctic to the breeding site but is most during., straight bill in his red knot rufa 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae as Tringa canutus on vital stopover with! 2015 brought New protections their annual migrations varies with subspecies, but the female leaves parental care to the with! Light grey belly with grey speckled back and wings the past decades, rufa roselaari.